Gouges' contemporary Madame Roland of the Gironde party became notorious for her Letter to Louis XVI in 1792. Von Frauenfeinden bösartig diffamiert, von Repub… In 1791 Gouges became part of the Society of the Friends of Truth, also called the "Social Club," an association with the goal of equal political and legal rights for women. The presiding judge denied Gouges her legal right to a lawyer on the grounds that she was more than capable of representing herself. A Biography of Olympe de Gouges. Citizens were defined as men over 25, were "independent" and had paid the poll tax. Then she took the side of the Girondins and … She was possibly the illegitimate daughter of Jean-Jacques Le Franc de Caix (the Marquis de Pompignan), himself a man of letters and a playwright (among whose claims to fame in… On 2 June 1793, the Jacobins of the Montagnard faction arrested prominent Girondins, imprisoned them, and sent them to the guillotine in October. Marie Gouze nació en el pueblo de Montauban el 7 de mayo de 1748. In her letters she articulated the values of the Enlightenment, and commented on how they may be put into practice, such as civic virtue, universal rights, natural rights and political rights. Transaction Publ, 2006. The problem was that law of the revolution made it a capital offense for anyone to publish a book or pamphlet that encouraged reestablishing the monarchy. [39], Gouges signed her pamphlets with citoyenne. Frequently these pamphlets were intended to stir up public anger. But in revolutionary France there were only citoyen. That piece demanded a plebiscite for a choice among three potential forms of government: the first, a unitary republic, the second, a federalist government, or the third, a constitutional monarchy. Marie-Olympe de Gouges was born Marie Gouzes in Montauban, in southern France, on December 31, 1748. [16] Through her friends, she managed to publish two texts: Olympe de Gouges au tribunal révolutionnaire ("Olympe de Gouges at the Revolutionary tribunal"), in which she related her interrogations; and her last work, Une patriote persécutée ("A [female] patriot persecuted"), in which she condemned the Terror. [2] Gouges attended the artistic and philosophical salons of Paris, where she met many writers, including La Harpe, Mercier, and Chamfort, as well as future politicians such as Brissot and Condorcet. When they could not find any in her home, she voluntarily led them to the storehouse where she kept her papers. Gouges was defiant, she wrote "I'm determined to be a success, and I'll do it in spite of my enemies." In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. Olympe de Gouges, ursprungligen Marie Gouze, född 7 maj 1748 i Montauban, död genom avrättning 3 november 1793, var en fransk revolutionär. The actress Véronique Genest read an excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Woman. She is honoured in many street names across France, in the Salle Olympe de Gouges exhibition hall in rue Merlin, Paris, and the Parc Olympe de Gouges in Annemasse. Wikipedia: Olympe de Gouges in der freien Enzyklopädie, Infos zu Bildmaterial und Lizenzen auf geboren.am ›, Tod mit 45 Jahren am 3. Gouges also openly attacked the notion that human rights were a reality in revolutionary France. Ihre politischen Überlegungen sind von den sich überstürzenden Veränderungen der frühen Französischen Revolution geprägt, erweisen sich jedoch über den historischen Kontext hinausgehend von Bedeutung. Across the Atlantic world observers of the French Revolution were shocked, but the ideals of liberté, égalité, fraternité had taken a life of their own. In her political writings Gouges had not called for women to abandon their homes, but she was cast by the politicians as an enemy of the natural order, and thus enemy of the ruling Jacobin party. In that pamphlet she expressed, for the first time, her famous statement: "A woman has the right to mount the scaffold. It seems as though the judge based this argument on Gouges' tendency to represent herself in her writings. [41] "[11] Michelet opposed any political participation by women and thus disliked Gouges. In the first act (only the first act and a half remain), Marie-Antoinette is planning defense strategies to retain the crumbling monarchy and is confronted by revolutionary forces, including Gouges herself. September 1791 An die Königin Die Rechte der Frau Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin – Präambel – Artikel 1 bis 17 – Postambel Muster eines Gesellschaftsvertrages von Mann und Frau Anekdote Postskriptum Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) hieß eigentlich Marie Gouze. Her stance against the slavery in the French colonies made her the target of threats. In this position she wrote her best-known work, the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen. [35] He tried to change her name in the records, to Marie Aubry, but the name she had given herself has endured. Olympe de Gouges is considered as one of the first feminists. Sie ist die Verfasserin der Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin von 1791. Juli 1793 wurde auf der Brücke Saint-Michel in Paris Olympe de Gouges verhaf­tet, als sie zusam­men mit dem Buchhänd­ler-Verle­ger Costard und dem Plaka­tie­rer Trottier ein Plakat anbrin­gen wollte mit dem Titel: „Les trois urnes ou le salut de la patrie, par un voyager aérien“. It will teach the Tyrants just what a people united by long oppression and enlightened by sound philosophy can do". Olympe de Gouges, also called Marie-Olympe de Gouges, original name Marie Gouze, married name Marie Aubry, (born May 7, 1748, Montauban, France—died November 3, 1793, Paris), French social reformer and writer who challenged conventional views on a number of matters, especially the role of women as citizens. [8] Gouges did not approve of violent revolution, and published l'Esclavage des Noirs with a preface in 1792, arguing that the slaves and the free people who responded to the horrors of slavery with "barbaric and atrocious torture" in turn justified the behavior of the tyrants. Olympe de Gouges schreibt: „Selbstbewusst und selbstlos wie dieser nämliche Mercier wurde ich umso umtriebiger.“ Mercier soll recht behalten. [42], In November 1788 she published her first political brochure, a manifesto entitled Letter to the people, or project for a patriotic fund. Browse 56 olympe de gouges stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. It was there that the commissioners found an unfinished play titled La France Sauvée ou le Tyran Détroné ("France Preserved, or The Tyrant Dethroned"). I was sacrificed for no reason that could make up for the repugnance I felt for this man. Despite this she expresses loyalty for the ministers Jacques Necker and Charles Alexandre de Calonne. In language and practice this was a debate among men and about men. Like men who could not pay the poll tax, children, domestic servants, rural day-laborers and slaves, Jews, actors and hangmen, women had no political rights. Born Marie Gouze she first adopted the name Olympe de Gouges for her early plays. The same year she wrote a series of pamphlets on a range of social concerns, such as illegitimate children. Marie Gouze was born into a petit bourgeois family in 1748 in Montauban, Quercy (in the present-day department of Tarn-et-Garonne), in southwestern France. "[32] Revolutionary novels were published that put women at the centre of violent struggle, such as the narratives written by Helen Maria Williams and Leonora Sansay. She was executed by guillotine during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) for attacking the regime of the Revolutionary government and for her association with the Girondists. One of the slave protagonist explains that the French must gain their own freedom, before they can deal with slavery. The slave trade lobby had mounted a press campaign against her play and she eventually took legal action, forcing Comédie-Française to stage l'Esclavage des Noirs. Olympe de Gouges (pronunție franceză: /olɛ̃p də ɡuʒ/; n. 17 mai 1748, Montauban, Franța – d. 3 noiembrie 1793, Paris, Prima Republică Franceză), născută Marie Gouze, a fost o dramaturgă din Franța, activistă politică ale cărei scrieri feministe și aboliționiste au avut o deosebită influență.. Și-a început cariera de dramaturg la începutul anilor 1780. In Paris Gouges was accused by the mayor of Paris of having incited the insurrection in Saint-Domingue with the play. Born Marie Gouze in Montauban, France in 1748 to petite-bourgeois parents Anne Olympe Moisset Gouze, a maidservant, and her second husband, Pierre Gouze, a butcher, Marie grew up speaking Occitan (the dialect of the region). A record of her papers which were seized in 1793, at the time of her execution, lists about 40 plays. [citation needed], In 1788 she published Réflexions sur les hommes nègres, which demanded compassion for the plight of slaves in the French colonies. She usually was invited to the salons of Madame de Montesson and the Comtesse de Beauharnais, who also were playwrights. [15], After her arrest, the commissioners searched her house for evidence. She continued to publish political essays between 1788 and 1791. [30], American women began to refer to themselves as citess or citizeness and took to the streets to achieve equality and freedom. But like the writings of Etta Palm d'Aelders, Theroigne de Mericourt, Claire Lacombe and Marquis de Condorcet, her arguments fell on deaf ears. That year a number of women with a public role in politics were executed, including Madame Roland and Marie-Antoinette. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(colorFamily.name)}} Engraved portrait of French feminist and revolutionary Olympe de Gouges . Sie ist die Verfasserin der Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin von 1791. Her body was disposed of in the Madeleine Cemetery. [25], 1793 has been described as a watershed for the construction of women's place in revolutionary France, and the deconstruction of the Girondins' Marianne. [39], Gouges penned more than 30 plays, often with a socially critical theme. The first act ends with Gouges reproving the queen for having seditious intentions and lecturing her about how she should lead her people. Ihr Geburtsort ist Montauban nahe Toulose in Südfrankreich. Dieser gehörte einem ortsansässigen Adelsgeschlecht an, ging aber bald nach der Geburt Maries nach Paris, wo er sich als Literat einen Namen machte und an di… She remained close to Rozières throughout the French Revolution. In her open letter to Marie-Antoinette, Gouges declared: "I could never convince myself that a princess, raised in the midst of grandeur, had all the vices of baseness... Madame, may a nobler function characterize you, excite your ambition, and fix your attention. Olympe de Gouges - Vorkämpferin für Frauenrechte – Französischen Revolution -Autorin – Theaterstücke - 1748 geboren, „Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und der Bürgerin“ (1791 -vom Revolutionstribunal am 3. Olympe de Gouges défenseur officieux de Louis Capet - (December 1792) this letter written to the Convention on 16 December 1792 offering to defend Louis XVI was also produced as a placard liberally posted around Paris; it was disregarded and derided. Women were not granted political rights in revolutionary France, thus Gouges used her pamphlets to enter the public debate and she argued that the debate needed to include the female civic voice. Today she is perhaps best known as an early women's rights advocate who demanded that French women be given the same rights as French men. According to MP Jean-Baptiste Poncet-Delpech and others, "all of Montauban" knew that Lefranc de Pompignan was the adulterous father of the future Olympe de Gouges. Updated May 15, 2019. [23] Lacombe, Léon and Theroigne de Mericourt had spoken at women's and mixed clubs, and the Assemblée, while Gouges had shown a reluctance to engage in public speaking, but prolifically published pamphlets. Mme de Gouges, die geistige Mutter der Menschenrechte für weibliche Menschen, ist die bedeutendste politische Denkerin im patriarchalen Europa: Ihre »Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin« (1791) ist ein bis heute unübertroffen scharfsinniges Dokument konsequenten Widerstandes gegen die »Erklärung der Männer- und Bürgerrechte« (1789), verfasst von Bürgern und Hausvätern. The one is ceaselessly taken as an example, and the other is eternally the execration of the human race. [13], Gouges was associated with the Gironde faction, who were targeted by the more radical Montagnard faction. In transferring sovereignty to the nation the constitution dismantled the old regime, but Gouges argued that it did not go far enough. Herausgegeben von Gabriela Wachter, Parthas, Berlin 2006, Mousset, Sophie: Women’s Rights and the French Revolution. As political tension rose in France, Olympe de Gouges became increasingly politically engaged. [1] Hon var politisk aktivist, feminist, författare och dramatiker.Hon är författaren till Deklarationen om kvinnans och medborgarinnans rättigheter (1791). In her letter she argued that he had been duped–that he was guilty as a king, but innocent as a man, and that he should be exiled rather than executed. [46], As the politics of revolutionary France changed and progressed Gouges failed to become an actor on the political stage, but in her letters offered advice to the political establishment. De Gouges' Sterbeort … On 3 November 1793 the Revolutionary Tribunal sentenced her to death and she was executed for seditious behavior and attempting to reinstate the monarchy. [17] On 2 November 1793 she wrote to him: "I die, my dear son, a victim of my idolatry for the fatherland and for the people. [20] Olympe's last moments were depicted by an anonymous Parisian who kept a chronicle of events: "Yesterday, at seven o'clock in the evening, a most extraordinary person called Olympe de Gouges who held the imposing title of woman of letters, was taken to the scaffold, while all of Paris, while admiring her beauty, knew that she didn't even know her alphabet.... She approached the scaffold with a calm and serene expression on her face, and forced the guillotine's furies, which had driven her to this place of torture, to admit that such courage and beauty had never been seen before.... That woman... had thrown herself in the Revolution, body and soul. [44], Gouges was not the only feminists who attempted to influence the political structures of late Enlightenment France. A number of her plays were published and some are extant. Olympe de Gouges, psewdonimu ta' Marie Gouze, (Montauban, 7 ta' Mejju 1748 – Pariġi, 3 ta' Novembru 1793), kienet drammaturga Franċiża li għexet matul ir-Rivoluzzjoni Franċiża.Il-kitba femminista u abolizzjonista tagħha kellha influwenza kbira. They were widely circulated within and outside France. Such as Cry of the wise man, by a woman in response to Louis XVI calling together the Estates-General. Gouges had acquired the position for him by paying 1,500 livres. Britannica Explores. [5] She came to the public's attention with the play l'Esclavage des Noirs, which was staged at the famous Comédie-Française in 1785. [2], In Paris she started a relationship with the wealthy Jacques Biétrix de Rozières, but refused his marriage proposal. Under the specious mask of republicanism, her enemies have brought me remorselessly to the scaffold."[18]. It is commonly believed that she was born and raised in a modest family, the daughter of Pierre Gouze, a butcher, and Anne Olympe Moisset, a maidservant. She became an outspoken advocate against the slave trade in the French colonies in 1788. The facts about her true parentage are somewhat vague, and de Gouges herself contributed to the confusion by encouraging rumors about her illegitimacy. [4] For Gouges there was a direct link between the autocratic monarchy in France and the institution of slavery, she argued that "Men everywhere are equal… Kings who are just do not want slaves; they know that they have submissive subjects". Leta 1791 je izdala eno njenih najodmevnejših del Deklaracijo o pravicah ženske in državljanke, v kateri je opozarjala na spolno neenakost v francoski družbi. Her proposition for a political order remained largely unchanged. In the public letter Remarques Patriotique from December 1788 Gouges justified why she is publishing her political thoughts, arguing that "This dream, strange though it may seem, will show the nation a truly civic heart, a spirit that is always concerned with the public good". While politically active women were executed the Convention banned all women's political associations. The experience of French women during the revolution entered the collective consciousness. But the play closed after three performances; the lobby had paid hecklers to sabotage the performances.[6]. [41] In the final act of l'Esclavage des Noirs Gouges lets the French colonial master, not the slave, utter a prayer for freedom: "Let our common rejoicings be a happy portent of liberty". Zitiert nach: Olympe de Gouges, Schriften, Frankfurt 1980, S. 41ff, übersetzt von Monika Dillier. [40] Among other themes she wrote plays on the slave trade, divorce, marriage, debtors' prisons, children's rights, and government work schemes for the unemployed. Media in category "Olympe de Gouges" The following 33 files are in this category, out of 33 total. Members sometimes gathered at the home of the well-known women's rights advocate, Sophie de Condorcet. She drew a parallel between colonial slavery and political oppression in France. You love glory; think, Madame, the greatest crimes immortalize one as much as the greatest virtues, but what a different fame in the annals of history! Al año siguiente enviudó y quedó con su único hijo, Pierre Aubry, que había nacido también en ese año. 14. A passionate advocate of human rights, Gouges greeted the outbreak of the Revolution with hope and joy, but soon became disenchanted when égalité (equal rights) was not extended to women. Finally, her poster Les trois urnes, ou le salut de la Patrie, par un voyageur aérien ("The Three Urns, or the Salvation of the Fatherland, by an Aerial Traveller") of 1793, led to her arrest. Clémence Bodoc, web rédactrice chez madmoizelle.com , nous décrit la « zone grise », moment où les interprétations diverses demandent l’avis de l’autre, du vis-à-vis, pour ne pas commettre une agression. Bild »Christine de Pizan« [M]: PD — Zeichenerklärung: [M] bearbeitet — Lizenztexte: CC BY-SA 3.0 — Infos zu Bildmaterial und Lizenzen auf geboren.am ›. [12] In December 1792, when Louis XVI was about to be put on trial, she wrote to the National Assembly offering to defend him, causing outrage among many deputies. November 1793 in Paris) war eine Revolutionärin, Frauenrechtlerin, Schriftstellerin und Autorin von Theaterstücken und Romanen im Zeitalter der Aufklärung. [38] Gouges signed her public letters with citoyenne, the feminised version of citizen. She was declared the daughter of Pierre Gouze, bourgeois of Montauban, master butcher - he did not sign at the baptism because he was absent - and of Anne Olympe Mouisset, daughter of a lawyer from a family of merchants, married in 1737 The latter, born in 1712, was the goddaughter of the Marquis Jean-Jacques Lefranc de Pompignan (Anne's father had been Jean-Jacques' tutor), born in 1709, with whom she would have maintained a romantic relationship.

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